The Papua Insects Foundation
The Handsome Fungus Beetles (Coleoptera: Endomychidae) of Papua Indonesia
by Floyd W. Shockley
Endomychidae, commonly known as the Handsome Fungus Beetles, is a moderately speciose family of mycophagous beetles within the Cerylonid Series of the superfamily Cucujoidea (Crowson 1955), with 130 genera and 1782 species and subspecies (Shockley et al. 2009a). Endomychidae as a family is distributed worldwide, occurring in all major biogeographical regions; however, the group is predominantly tropical with highest diversity in the Neotropics, equatorial Africa and southeast Asia. The family Endomychidae is currently arranged into 12 subfamilies (sensu Tomaszewska 2000): Anamorphinae (=Mycotheninae), Danascelinae, Endomychinae, Epipocinae, Eupsilobiinae (=Eidoreinae, Cerasommatidiidae), Leiestinae, Lycoperdininae (=Eumorphinae), Merophysiinae (=Holoparamecinae), Mycetaeinae (=Agaricophilinae), Pleganophorinae (=Trochoideinae), Stenotarsinae and Xenomycetinae.
The vast majority of taxa feed on the fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi, although there are representatives who specialize on softer agarics, molds, spores, and even several taxa which have been found to be facultatively phytophagous or predaceous. They rarely come to light traps and are most often collected directly from the surface of their host fungi. However, they can also be found in pitfall traps, flight intercept traps or beating/sweeping vegetation in close proximity to their hosts as they often rest on nearby foliage during the day. There are several species which have become stored product pests, and a number of taxa are inquilines of social insects, particularly from the subfamily Merophysiinae. A number of species appear to be involved in mimicry complexes with taxa from other beetle families such as Chrysomelidae, Coccinellidae, Erotylidae and Tenebrionidae, many of which are chemically defended. However, since these endomychids also tend to be chemically defended, it is unclear which is the model and which is the mimic in these Müllerian systems.
Adults of the family vary widely in size (ranging from 1-18 mm), morphology, and habits, particularly at the subfamilial and generic levels. Adults may be oval to elongate-oval and strongly convex to slightly flattened in habitus. Vestiture may be present or absent, but when present setae are typically recumbent to suberect. Because of this heterogeneity, it is difficult to generalize the adult morphology to make it applicable across the family.
All of the subfamilies exhibit interesting biogeographic distributional patterns. Some are cosmopolitan with genera extending over huge geographic ranges, while others are almost exclusively endemic to small, isolated regions.
Listed New Guinea species: 71 [53 endemic for New Guinea]
(For practical reasons all New Guinea species are listed. As soon as more distributional information comes available the list will be restricted to real Papua species).Coryphus Csiki, 1902niger Strohecker, 1979 [endemic]
Idiophyes Blackburn, 1895novabritanniae Strohecker, 1981
Papuella Strohecker, 1956
Ancylopus Costa, 1850
Beccariola Arrow, 1943
Encymon Gerstaecker, 1857
immaculatus (Montruzier, 1855)
immaculatus Guérin-Méneville, 1858
gerstaeckeri Dohrn, 1863
ruficollis Gemminger & Harold, 1876
angulatus Gorham, 1873
clavicornis Blackburn, 1890
australasiae Csiki, 1902
limbatus Pic, 1931
rufofemoratus Csiki, 1902
Eumorphus Weber, 1801
Gerstaeckerus Tomaszewska, 2005
Indalmus Gerstaecker, 1858
Trochoideus Westwood, 1833
Chondria Gorham, 1887
Stenotarsus Perty, 1832
ellipticus Strohecker, 1966 [endemic]
flavotestaceus (Csiki, 1900) [endemic]
tympanizans (Arrow, 1943) [endemic]Checklist last updated on 6th August 2009
Literature and other sources
Crowson, R.A., 1955. The Natural Classification of the Families of Coleoptera. Lloyd, London. 187 pp.
Shockley, F.W., K.W. Tomaszewska & J.V. McHugh, 2009a. An annotated checklist of the handsome fungus beetles of the world (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea: Endomychidae). Zootaxa 1999: 1-113.
Shockley, F.W., K.W. Tomaszewska & J.V. McHugh, 2009b. A review of the natural history of the Handsome Fungus Beetles (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea: Endomychidae). Insecta Mundi, 72: 1-24.
Shockley, Floyd W., 2009. Endomychidae. Handsome fungus beetles. Version 31 March 2009. http://tolweb.org/Endomychidae/9169/2009.03.31 in The Tree of Life Web Project, http://tolweb.org/.
Tomaszewska, K.W., 2000. Morphology, phylogeny and classification of adult Endomychidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea). Annales Zoologici 50 (4): 449-558.